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Maria-Antònia Oliver, Isabel-Clara Simó and Assumpta Margenat belong to the new generation of female writers and began to emerge in the 1980s from the Catalan-speaking regions of Spain, namely Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands. Though each writer posits a different relationship between her female characters and the world of crime with a variety of literary styles, all these three authors have chosen to write their work in Catalan or one of its dialectical variants to stand out regional literature, in particular the revival and expansion of Catalan culture.

Oliver’s works Estudi en lila (Study in Liac, 1985) and Antípodes (Antipodes, 1988) feature Lònia Guiu, a Barcelona-based, professional female private eye. Through Lònia’s investigations Oliver provides us with the opportunity to examine in depth a number of issues which have a particular relevance for women. Simó’s Una ombra fosca, como un núvol de tempesta (A Corpse of One’s Own, 1991) centers on Sara, a middle-aged housewife turns detective when her husband is murdered. During the lengthy investigations, Sara not only uncovers the truth about her husband’s shady business, but also has gone through her journey of self realization. Margenat’s Escap’ t ďAndorra (Wild Card, 1989) features Rossi, a female criminal avenger. Through Rossi’s anti-traditional female role, the novel intends to criticize sexual exploitation and violence which originated from the male-controlled capitalism.

The present essay aims to study how these three female authors use the detective genre to explore themes of gender, identity and violence with the purpose of deconstructing the rigid women’s roles and stereotypes by conventional patriarchal society, and to represent women’s/Other’s traits so as to rewrite the double marginalization of Catalonian women.

KEY WORDS: women’s detective fiction, gender, identity, violence, double marginalization

摘 要

奧莉薇(Maria-Antònia Oliver)、西摩(Isabel-Clara Simó) 及瑪荷納(Assumpta Margenat)屬於新生代的女作家,先後 於 1980 年代後期開始活躍於西班牙文壇,她們三人均來自 卡塔盧尼亞語區(卡塔盧尼亞、瓦倫西亞、巴莉阿里群島), 皆以卡塔盧尼亞方言書寫其女性偵探小說。儘管三位女作家 的寫作風格不同,詮釋女性主角與犯罪世界之關係也極不相 同,但由於她們均選擇卡塔盧尼亞方言來創作,突顯了方言 文學尤其是卡塔盧尼亞文化的再興與擴張。 奧莉薇的《紫色的研究》(Estudi en lila)(1985)、《對蹠 地》(Antípodes)(1988) 是一系列以巴塞隆納地區的女性私 家偵探羅妮亞(Lònia Guiu)為主角之偵探小說。作品中, 羅妮亞具有強烈的社會意識,非常執著於辦案,強調性解 放、兩性帄等,時時挑戰男性公共領域,是西班牙的女硬漢 及自由女性主義派的代言者。西摩的《黑色的影子彷彿暴風 雨之烏雲》(Una ombra fosca, como un núvol de tempesta) (1991)則描寫一位原先是帄凡的家庭主婦莎拉(Sara)後因 丈夫慘遭謀殺而搖身變成女性偵探的辦案故事。在漫長的辦 案過程裡,女主角除了揭發丈夫生前不可告人的非法交易, 也經歷了女性自我追尋與主體認同的旅程。瑪荷納的《遠離 安道爾》(Escap’ t ďAndorra)(1989) 卻是一部以女性犯罪復 仇者羅西(Rossi)為主的傳奇偵探小說。藉著羅西反傳統的 復仇者角色,作者強烈的批判以男性為中心的資本主義所衍 生的性剝削與性暴力。 本論文旨在探討奧莉薇、西摩及瑪荷納三位女作家如何 運用偵探小說文類(detective genre)呈現性別、身分認同與暴力的主題,藉以解構傳統父權社會所賦予女性之刻版形 象,並再現女性/他者的特質,試圖突破卡塔盧尼亞女性的 雙重邊緣化之困境。