Special issues:

Literature and Linguistics (Vol. 1 No. 2); Literature and Violence (Vol. 3 Nos. 1-2)

Women, Consumption and Popular Culture (Vol. 4 No. 1); Life, Community, and Ethics (Vol. 4. No. 2)

The Making of Barbarians in Western Literature (Vol. 5 No. 1); Chaos and Fear in Contemporary British Literature (Vol. 5 No. 2)

Taiwan Cinema before Taiwan New Wave Cinema (Vol. 6 No. 1); Catastrophe and Cultural Imaginaries (Vol. 6 No. 2)

Affective Perspectives from East Asia (Vol. 9 No. 2); Longing and Belonging (Vol. 10 No. 2, produced in collaboration with the European Network for Comparative Literary Studies)

Transatlantic Literary and Cultural Relations, 1776 to the Present (Vol. 11 No. 2). 


In recent years, natural disasters have been striking different areas with increasingly heightened frequency and intensifying severity. It is generally held that human activities, especially those related to industrialization and modernization, account for the deterioration of the natural environment. What underpins the excessive exploitation of nature, as asserted by critics arguing in line with Frankfurt School scholars, is instrumental rationality in modern society which is characterized by the domination of nature. For those who seek remedies for this predicament, therefore, effort should be devoted to both taking efficient measures to restore the environment as well as building proper mindset to prevent further damage. In the latter project, the priority would be to cultivate a new perspective on the relationship between humankind and nature to counter the inappropriate antithesis of nature and society. As part of this collective effort, this paper suggests critically appraising the efficacy of the notion of nature for a new environmental philosophy and proposes to rethink ecology with Deleuze-Bergsonian concept of life. It will be demonstrated by reading The Swarm by Frank Schatzing that how shifting from nature to life contributes to going beyond the properly human experience, which is biased toward our utility and hence a nexus of instrumental rationality, and thereby re-installing humankind in the Whole of the universe, which should be approached in terms of time/duration rather than space.

KEY WORDS: nature, instrumental rationality, Deleuze-Bergsonian life philosophy, The Swarm, duration, virtuality

摘 要

二○○四年印尼發生海嘯以來,重大天災在台灣及世 界各地接二連三發生,頻率之高與災情之慘重都超乎過往 的想像。眾人咸認這是大自然對現代社會的工業文明物節 制破壞環境的反撲,療癒受摧殘的自然環境,並阻止事態 更加惡化,便成為許多關心環保人士的著力點除了較屬實 務層陎的介入之外,相關人士更注意到建立新環境論述以 開拓新行動空間的必要性。如果人類濫用科技過度開發是 造成環境崩毀的主因,檢討並重整人與自然環境的相對關 係似乎才是解決問題的根本之道。因應而生的相關論述不 約而同指出,生態危機最根本的病灶在於人類自外於自 然,將之區隔為工業及科技作用的對象,因此如何重新將 人納入自然環境的生態系,甚至是否應該徹底拋棄自然的 觀念,便成為思考的重心。本文將從檢視現今生態論述對 於修正自然觀念及人類如何重回生態共群的辯證出發,並 藉由對德國小說家薛慶的科幻作品《群》的閱讀,說明其如 何標示了一條以德勒茲-柏格森式生命哲學中所談的生命 概念來鬆動甚至取代自然觀念的路徑,由是超越與工具理 性息息相關的人類經驗,並展演人與孙宙整體的關係必須 透過在時間中的存在,亦即綿延,才能真正被了解,並從 而展現其生態學上的意義。