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In Canto 31 of the Paradiso Dante likens his amazement upon entering the Empyrean and beholding the heavenly citadel, laid out in the form of a white rose, to the awe that the Barbarians must have felt when they first gazed on the majesty of the great monuments of Rome. He goes on to contrast the just and sane people who dwell in the heavenly realm with himself, who has journeyed from time to eternity, from the human to the divine, from Florence to the city of the saints, thus implying that his native city represents all that is not just, all that does not respect the divine order, all that is barbaric.

In fact, this contrasting of the Heavenly Jerusalem with Florence is part of a wider programme in the Commedia in which Dante vividly portrays the corruption, avarice and internecine strife that has brought the once great cities of Italy low, and sets forth his vision for a new civic disposition when Rome will once again rule over a new Christian Empire. This is essentially the same vision that Dante sets forth in his Monarchia where he proposes that the dual roles of Christ as King and High Priest be divided on earth between Pope and Emperor, the latter holding absolute sway in the civic realm and guaranteeing the peace in which citizens can flourish and lead an upright moral life, the former determining all matters spiritual.

This paper explores how Dante‘s complex portrayal of infernal and heavenly cities in the Commedia is the principal vehicle whereby he sets forth his political and ethical vision for a Christian civilisation, just as important in its own way as the spiritual message of the poem.

KEY WORDS: Dante, political, Monarchia, city, emperor, pope.

摘 要

在「天堂樂園」的第 31 篇裡,但丁把他對於進入至高 殿堂以及天堂堡壘的體驗幻化成一朵白色玫瑰的形體,並 把此譬為野蠻人最初看到冠冕堂皇的羅馬時的敬畏。再 者,他繼續把住在仙堂境地裡正直理智的人跟他自己做對 比,而他-一位從現世走往永恆,從人間走往神界,他從佛 羅倫斯遊走到聖人城市。由此,他暗示:他土生土長的城 市代表了所有不公平正義,一切不遵守神聖次序,凡是野蠻 的事物。 事實上,把天上的耶路撒冷跟佛羅倫斯對比,這只是 一個較廣計畫當中的一小部分。在「神曲」當中,但丁生動 地描繪著腐敗、貪婪、互相殘殺的鬥爭,這些已使得那曾 經宏偉的義大利城市變成低級不堪。當羅馬再一次地統治 著一嶄新的基督教帝國,他想要開始實踐他的新公民佈署 的理想。這在根本上跟但丁在「君主制」一書提倡的理念一 般,他建議道,耶穌同時為國王與祭司的身份,在人間分 別託付給教宗和帝王。後者對公民的領域有絕對的統治權並 保證和平給所有的城民,讓他們在正直的道德生活中欣欣 向榮,而前者要求所有的事情處決於心靈層面。 這篇論文旨在探討,但丁對於地獄與天堂的複雜描寫 在「神曲」當中如何成為他的主要的傳播媒介,於此他開始 了他對基督文明政治與道德的夢想,此點跟他如何以自己 特有的手法表達心靈性的訊息有同樣的重要性。