Virginia Woolf with her great talent as a writer and thinker has achieved canonical status in world literature. There is no doubt that she was one of the most distinguished modernist writers in the twentieth century and her works continue to have an impact in today’s world.When Virginia Woolf was first introduced to Taiwan’s readers in 1960, her works were indeed seen as a stimulus to contemporary literary production, but it wasn’t until the 1990s that Woolf’s works were translated into Chinese on a larger scale and became more widely acknowledged by Taiwan’s readership. However, only certain novels were translated and in some cases, a single text gave rise to three or four different translations. The film productions of Orlando (1993) and The Hours (2003) have played an important role in promoting Woolf’s popularity in Taiwan. This article will attempt to examine Orlando, one of her most popular works in Taiwan, and investigate how different translators render this witty and poetic text. Orlando was first translated into Chinese in 1993, the same year the film version was released in Taiwan, and since then, four more versions of the work have appeared on the market (the most recent one being released in 2008). Why did the publishers want to produce different versions? What images do these four translations represent? What translation strategies do the translators adopt in order to deal with Woolf’s innovative style? This study applies the theoretical frameworks of Gérard Genette and of André Lefevere in order to investigate the four recent translations of Virginia Woolf’s Orlando. In addition, Shan Te-hsing’s concept of “double contextualization” fittingly explains how a translated work should be placed in the target culture. It is hoped that this case study can shed new light on the historiography of literary translation in Taiwan in particular and of translation studies in general.
KEYWORDS: Virginia Woolf, Orlando, Shan Te-hsing, double contextualization, Gérard Genette, paratexts, André Lefevere, translation as re-writing
吳爾芙在世界文學的經典地位毋庸置疑。她於 1928 年 所發表的《歐蘭朵：一部傳記》（Orlando: A Biography），一 方面有傳記作品的考據之實，另一方面又展現了跨越文類疆 界，以詼諧戲謔筆法打破現實與虛擬界限的高度創意。這部 作品的中譯與 1993 年改編電影問世不無關係，迄今共有四 個中譯本。本論文試圖藉由法國符號學家惹內（Gérard Genette）的「附文本」（paratexts）、翻譯學者雷飛維（André Lefevere）「翻譯為重寫」等概念，來探討不同時期各家譯者 與各個出版社所「包裝操縱」的吳爾芙，如何打造出各種不 同形貌的《歐蘭朵：一部傳記》，學者單德興所提出的「雙 重脈絡化」的概念適切地點出了譯者之責，有助於進一步釐 清譯作的定位。本論文希望藉由惹內對「附文本」的討論， 首先檢視原作中吳爾芙如何利用各類附文本，遊走跨越文類 疆界，打破現實與虛構的界限，凸顯出附文本與正文的交互 映照，開啟了多重解讀的可能性；其次再檢視譯文重寫者， 如何利用各種出版機制及版面設計等各類附文本，形塑我們 對一部作品的認識，藉由雷飛維對翻譯即重寫的討論，來剖 析譯作在經過重新詮釋與重寫者的操縱後，如何產生新的意 義與影響。