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The dream is an important cultural representation of indigenous collective consciousness. Retaining its primordial force in the indigenous world, the dream plays an important role in indigenous people’s everyday life and social affairs. In view of attaining a fuller understanding of indigenous dreams the paper explores indigenous dream traditions and dream cultures, delving into the dreams’ expressive forms, interpretations, and social participation, and relating them to an indigenous way of knowledge production. The paper thereby asserts that the dream writing in indigenous literature arises from a particular dream poetics. The paper is divided into two parts, firstly an adumbration of recent indigenous dream research and secondly a dream study of Linda Hogan’s novel People of the Whale. The former draws attention to post-Freudian dream research with a focus on the cultural turn in indigenous dream study. The latter reads Hogan's novel based on the above understanding with focuses on the dream's involvement in collective as well as individual affairs, its implication for environmental consciousness, and its contribution to indigenous world making. The dream is not separated from everyday-life reality in indigenous traditions, and approached both theoretically and literarily the otherwise esoteric indigenous dreamscape is revealed to be rich and meaningful.

KEYWORDS: literature and culture, indigenous dream tradition, indigenous dream culture, Native North Americans, Linda Hogan’s People of the Whale, world making  

摘 要

夢為重要的原住民集體文化意識的表徵,許多原住民的夢文化、夢傳統,構成日常生活的一部份,並參與日常生活的運作,至今仍然維持夢參與現實世界的原始活力。本論文探討原住民夢傳統所顯示的夢的文化形式、文化詮釋,以及夢的社會參與,並以這個面向閱讀原住民文學中有關夢的運用、夢的文化經驗與表達,開展夢的多元文化意義。論文分為夢研究和作品研究兩部分,第一部份為晚近夢研究的多元化概述,特別聚焦於原住民夢研究的轉向,闡述原住民夢的集體性和知識生產。第二部分以前述的理論建構,閱讀美國契卡索混血原住民琳達‧霍根(Linda Hogan)的小說《鯨族人》(People of the Whale),闡述書中夢的書寫和運用、夢的集體與個人意義、夢和環境以及公共事務的牽涉,以及夢文化的世界化成。夢的本質是流動不羈的,難以掌握;原住民的夢傳統更且與日常生活打成一片,不拘場合互相穿透,沒有固定的形式可供定位,但也因為和西方現代性對夢的理解如此不同,因而另有一片難得的文化風景值得深究。


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