Tsu-Chung Su



From 1935 to 1938, Konstantin Stanislavsky turned away from political turmoil in Russia and concentrated on operating the last studio in his life—the Opera-Dramatic Studio. He was actively engaged in experimenting a rehearsal technique called the “Method of Physical Action” within this less than four-year period. He passed away on 7 August 1938 at the age of seventy-five. This Studio which was established to experiment the Method of Physical Action in his later years let me think of Edward Said’s final work titled On Late Style: Music and Literature Against the Grain. This paper intends to use the term “late style” as a viewpoint to initiate discussions, investigations, and analyses about Stanislavsky. It proposes to conduct a review of his creative career in the very beginning. Then it focuses on exploring different aspects of the Method of Physical Action in terms of theory and practice. It employs the quasi-fugue technique to juxtapose three interpretative voices or sources which all address the meaningful topic of the Method of Physical Action (MPA) with a view to allow the three source materials to complement and cross-fertilize each other, and in the end to enrich our understanding of the MPA. Finally, this paper aims to illustrate and evaluate the MPA’s characteristics, uniqueness, and creativity under the rubric of late style.


KEYWORDS: Konstantin Stanislavsky, the System, the Method of Physical Action, the Opera-Dramatic Studio, late style


摘  要

 從1935年到1938年,史坦尼斯拉夫斯基拋開政治紛擾,戮力經營他畢生最後一個實驗室──「歌劇─戲劇工作室」(the Opera-Dramatic Studio)。在這四年不到的光景,他積極實驗一種稱之為「身體行動方法」的排練技術,最終史氏逝世於1938年8月7日,享壽七十五歲。史氏晚年針對實驗「身體行動方法」所發展的工作室,讓筆者聯想到薩依德(Edward Said)晚年所撰寫的代表作《論晚期風格:反常合道的音樂與文學》。本論文的目的在運用「晚期風格」這個議題為引子、切入點和分析的角度,來檢視史氏的「身體行動方法」,探索此法所呈現的到底是什麼樣的晚期面貌。論文一開始將回顧史氏的創作生涯,接著把焦點集中在討論史氏「身體行動方法」在理論與實踐上的點點滴滴,以類「賦格」的手法,將「身體行動方法」一意義深遠的主題以三個版本對位的方式呈現──將主題和主題素材所引發的各種議論以並排方法處理,使這三個聲部版本形成相互補充和問答追逐的效果,豐富我們對「身體行動方法」的理解。論文最後將以「身體行動方法」所呈現的表演程式來闡述、評價並界定史氏「晚期風格」的精要、獨特性與創新性。