Cultural turn has had a remarkable influence on contemporary translation studies, in which the translator’s interference and cultural politics are given special attention. In the process, literal translation has been ignored in discussions concerning cultural translation, for it emphasizes the traits of the source language and avoids the translator’s subjective interpretation and manipulation in the process of translation. If, ever since German Romanticism, literal translation has been concerned about the “cultural other,” which is also the main concern of cultural translation, it seems that silencing literal translation should be criticized and righted. This paper suggests understanding literal translation in terms of image, which is different from the approach of German Romanticism. Translation can never be completely divorced from culture, and hence contemporary translation studies should not ignore the enormous effect of images on culture. This paper’s theoretical framework is therefore founded upon the connection between image and literal translation. The connection between translation and image is commonly understood in terms of intersemiotic translation, but I take Rey Chow’s and Deleuze’s notion of “surface” as a key to relate image to literal translation in order to manifest its im-mediacy. This immediacy reveals the politics of seeing, and, on the other hand, the disjunctive sense in literal translation makes its effects visible and audible, which immediately enable the factuality to touch the eyes without the intervention of psychological adjustment and rational interpretation.
KEYWORDS: cultural turn, literal translation, image, surface, Deleuze
文化轉向對當代翻譯研究影響甚巨,譯者介入以及文化 政治等重要性成為探討的重心,然而直譯策略卻因強調來源 語特徵,並有意識地在翻譯過程中避免譯者的主觀詮釋等因 素,在文化翻譯的討論中不受重視。倘若自德國浪漫主義以 降,直譯一直圍繞著文化他者的議題展開,文化翻譯學派對 於直譯的忽視,顯然是論述架構中一個必須被彌補的空隙。 本文試圖從影像的角度,提出一個不同於德國浪漫主義的對 直譯的理解方式。翻譯不可能全然脫離文化面向,當今翻譯 研究也不應忽略影像對文化的巨大影響,影像與直譯的勾連 成為本文的主要論述架構。關於翻譯與影像的研究往往由跨 符際的角度處理,本文則從周蕾與德勒茲關於「表面」的論 述著手,作為聯繫影像與直譯的樞紐,闡釋直譯與影像的直 接性。這種直接性一方面揭露觀看的政治,另一方面,直譯 的詞不達意突顯出聲音與視覺效果,讓事實本身不經心理機 制調整與理性詮釋而直接觸及觀者之眼。