In this paper I shall present briefly some considerations on the purported relationship between courtly fin’amor literature and the cult of the Virgin Mary. Through an analysis of a representative selection of texts (Latin hymns to the Virgin, a selection of Marian writings, Occitan and Italian lyric poems) drawn from the extraordinarily rich corpus produced between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries, I shall endeavour to illustrate something of the nature and extent of the intersection between the secular and religious realms. My principal contention will be that despite undeniable evidence of influence and borrowings in both directions, the value systems underpinning religious and secular literature were fundamentally irreconcilable so that the relationship was always a conflictual and competitive one. Though this is more evident in the sharp contrast between Latin hymns and early Occitan lyric poetry it also holds true, I shall argue, both for the spiritualised poetry of the dolce stil novo and for vernacular texts dedicated to the Virgin which draw on the courtly tradition such as the Northern Italian laude and French motets of the thirteenth century.
KEYWORDS: courtly, Virgin Mary, hymns, Latin, vernacular, poetry
本文旨在針對宮廷文學精緻之愛 (fin’amor) 與童貞瑪利 亞崇拜兩者間隱含之關係提出幾項論述。本文從十二至十 四世紀豐富的文學作品中挑選代表文本 (頌讚貞女之拉丁讚 美詩、稱頌瑪利亞之書寫、以奧其頓古文寫作之抒情詩與 義大利文抒情詩) 並加以剖析,力圖描繪世俗領域與宗教國 度交錯而生的特質與範疇。本文認為,雖無法否認該類文 本確實受此二者影響,也有從中取用之痕跡,然而宗教文 學與世俗文學兩者所隱含的價值體系互有牴觸,向來扞格 不入,處於競爭的態勢。雖然此論點較適用於對比鮮明的 拉丁讚美詩與早期奧其頓語的抒情詩,但亦合於甜美新風 格 (dolce stil novo) 的淨化詩歌與頌讚貞女之方言文本,兩 者皆受宮廷傳統之薰陶,諸如十三世紀風行於北義大利的 世俗詩歌 (laude) 與法國經文歌等皆屬之。